The popularity of the Indian male body has increased in recent years, thanks to its commodification via the Internet. The Web has offered Indian cultural producers the opportunity to export hetero-normative Indian masculinity—specifically the physically imposing, light-skinned prototype now common in Indian films, television and advertising--to global consumers.
Published on Authors of this article:. Background: Female sex workers FSWs have high rates of both unintended pregnancy and HIV, but few health promotion interventions address their contraceptive needs or other sexual and reproductive health and rights SRHR concerns. A broader approach integrates contraceptive promotion with HIV and sexually transmitted infection STI prevention and management, alcohol awareness, gender-based violence and rights, and health care utilization.
For instance, acts of adultery and rape were punished with extreme torture, and even death.
She founded Naz India to focus on communities stigmatized by the society. None of the principal Christian denominations in India allow same-sex marriage. In "Same-Sex Love in India : Readings from Literature and History", author Ruth Vanita analyzes dozens of such marriages and suicides that have taken place over the last three decades, and explores their legal, religious, and historical aspects.
However, sincewhen the national press carried the story of two policewomen who married each other by Hindu rites in central India,  the press has reported many same-sex marriages, all over the country, mostly between lower middle class young women in small towns and rural areas, who have no contact with any gay movement. In recent years, some of these couples have appeared on television as well.
State recognition is not sought by most couples because it confers few benefits. There have also been a couple of high profile celebrity same-sex marriages, such as the civil union of deer Wendell Rodericks with his French partner, conducted under French law in Goa, India.
Homosexual relations are legally still a crime in India under an old British era statute dating from called Section of the Indian Penal Code which criminalises 'carnal intercourse against the order of nature. There is increasing demand from activists to decriminalize homosexual relationships. Through the years, Naz India has evolved and implemented a holistic approach to combat HIV, focusing on prevention as well as treatment.
The text paints a fascinating portrait of an India whose openness to sexuality gave rise to a highly developed expression of the erotic.
Several LGBT rights organizations have demanded the right to same-sex marriage, and, recently, several Indian television talk shows, inspired both by news from the West, such as Elton John's civil partnershipand by reports about Indian same-sex couples eloping and facing persecution by families and by police, have discussed the issue. Religion has played a ificant role in shaping Indian customs and traditions.
Military service. While police generally harass such couples, Indian courts have uniformly upheld their right, as adults, to live with whomever they wish. Several organizations like The Naz Foundation IndiaNational AIDS Control Organisation Law Commission of India  and The Planning Commission of India  have either implicitly, or expressly come out in support of decriminalizing homosexuality in India, and pushed for tolerance and social equality for lesbiangaybisexualand transgendered people.
The group has been cited for "offering surprisingly informative links and serving as one of the few online communities of queer South Asians". The punishment for male offenders was less severe: " Many heterosexual crimes were punished much more severely.
The punishment ranges from ten years to lifelong imprisonment.
InZoltan Parag, a competitor at the Mr. Gay International contest said that he was "scared" to return to India fearing discrimination. There have also been numerous t suicides by same-sex couples, mostly female male-female couples also resort to suicide or to elopement and religious marriage when their families oppose their unions. There is no legal recognition of same-sex couples under Indian law.
In SeptemberNobel Laureate Amartya Sen and acclaimed writer Vikram Seth came together with scores of other prominent Indians in public life to publicly demand this change in the legal regime. Gay dating sites such as GayDia and IndusGay provide an alternative way for meeting people; online communities like GayBombay offer a safe and convenient environment for meeting gays all around India.
It is used by some to threaten and blackmail homosexuals. It works with the police services in New Delhi, conducting weekly training workshops for police personnel.
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Sexual acts 'against the order of nature' remain illegal in India, though the government no longer seeks to prosecute adults engaging in private consensual homosexual acts. Template:Life in India. Social networking site, Facebookboasts an expansive "Queer and Trans Desis South Asians " community, it escapsulates both native South Asians and those of the diaspora. There have been arguments that homosexuality was both prevalent and accepted in ancient Hindu society.
In recent years, the campaign to decriminalize homosexuality has strengthened. Naz India has collaborated with these agencies to address cases of sexual rights abuse. The law continues to be on the books. He was quickly anointed by the Indian and the world media as the first openly gay royal. This group held their first ever meeting in Mumbai in late The group now has members in Delhi and Bangalore.
It has india used in the past to harass people involved in condom distribution amongst homosexuals. An impressive collection of academic articles and personal stories celebrating diverse sexuality is Because I have a Voice: Queer Politics in Indiaedited by Arvind Narrain and Gautam Bhan. Though thousand was considered a part of sexual practices, it was not always well accepted.
In recent years, however, attitudes towards homosexuality have shifted slightly. Public discussion of homosexuality in India has been inhibited by the fact that sexuality in any form is rarely discussed openly. The blogsphere has also not been immune to the modern emergence of a queer desi identity. Gay Indians residing outside the country have formed support groups that cater to issues specific to the lesbian, gay men, bisexual and transgender community of South Asian descent.
The reports of harassment of homosexual individuals and gatherings by the police has seen a gradual decline since Now with the emergence of several LGBT support groups across the nation, the much hidden queer community has increased access to health services and social events .
There were punishments prescribed for homosexual behaviour. The Internet has created a prolific gay cyber text for the South Asian community. Most couples seek the validation of family and community, and several female couples in rural areas and small towns have received this validation. His reply was that "there would not be much appreciation for a law sex that in India," and he went on to talk about how they were culturally very different societies.
While homosexuality has not been explicitly mentioned in the religious texts central to Hinduismthe largest religion in Indiasome interpretations have been viewed as condemning homosexuality. The unabridged modern translation of the classic Indian text Kama Sutra  chats without ambiguity or hypocrisy with all aspects of sexual life—including marriage, adultery, prostitution, group sex, sadomasochism, male and female homosexuality, and transvestism.
The People's Union for Civil Liberties has published two reports of the rights violations faced by sexual minorities and, in oak, transsexuals hijras and kothis in India.
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In particular, there have been more depictions and discussions of homosexuality in the Indian news media    and by Bollywood. Inthe Delhi High Court refused to consider a petition regarding the legality of the law, saying that the petitioners, a sexual health NGO called the Naz Foundation had no locus standi in the matter. The first event hosted by the group was the Queer Media Collective Awards There is a vibrant gay nightlife in cities such as MumbaiHyderabadand Bangaloreincluding discos and nightclubs.
The organization also aims to sensitize the community to the prevalence of HIV, as well as highlight issues related to sexuality and sexual health. He has even appeared at an Oprah Winfrey show. In Maythe case came up for hearing in the Delhi High Court, but the Government was undecided on its position, with The Ministry of Home Affairs maintaining a contradictory position to that of The Ministry of Health on the issue of enforcement of Section with respect to homosexuality.
She argues that many of the marriages can arguably be considered legally valid, as under the Hindu Marriage Act,any marriage between two Hindus performed according to the customs prevalent in the community of one of the two partners is legally valid. The preface to the book states that it 'traces the history of ideas in Indian writing traditions about love between women and love between men who are not biologically related.
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He was disinherited as an immediate reaction by the royal family, but they eventually reconciled. Intwo unnamed women in Hyderabad asked the Darul Qaza, an Islamic court, for a fatwa allowing them to marry, but permission was denied with a rebuke from the chief qazi.
Laws around the world. Naz Foundation won its appeal in the Supreme Court against the decision of the High Court to dismiss the petition on technical grounds. The Queer Media Collective QMC is a group of professional journalists who aim to recognize and reward balanced treatment of gay, lesbian and other queer issues in the Indian media and entertainment industry. For instance, a lesbian couple that ran away together in Uttar PradeshIndia were arrested and handed back to their parents, in spite of both parties being of legal age by applying this section as the legal basis for their arrest.
Since nobody has been prosecuted in the recent past under this section it would perhaps seem unlikely that the section will be struck down as illegal by the Delhi High Court in the absence of a petitioner with standing.
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Blogs like Queeristan highlight stories and issues specific to this marginalized community. Rights by country. The supreme Sikh religious body, the Akal Takhthas issued an edict condemning gay marriage and has told Sikhs living in Canada not to support or allow gay marriages in gurudwaras.
Convictions are extremely rare, and in the last twenty years there have been no convictions for homosexual relations in India. He said, "Indian media has exposed me so much that now when I call my friends back home, their parents do not let them talk to me". Voices has supported the demand to 'read down' section to exclude adult consensual sex from within its purview. LGBT rights organizations. For instance, the verse referring to sexual relations between an older woman and a virgin woman re " However, the verse referring to sexual relations between two virgins suggests a relatively milder punishment -- " For instance, the punishment for a forced sex act between a man and a woman states " There is also no penalty prescribed for two non-virgins who have sex together.
Family reactions range from support to disapproval to violent persecution. New York City is also host to a unique, monthly Bollywood -themed gay party and mixer called Sholay. There has been a ificant intervention in the case by a Delhi-based coalition of LGBT, women's and human rights activists called 'Voices Against '. None of the major Indian political parties have endorsed gay rights concerns into their official party manifesto or platform.
The Manusmritiwhich lists the oldest codes of conduct that were proposed to be followed by a Hindu, does include mention of homosexual practices, but only as something to be regulated.
InPrince Manavendra Singh Gohil from a conservative principality in the Gujarat state publicly came out as gay. Anti-LGBT violence. Homosexuality in India is generally considered a taboo subject by both Indian civil society and the government. It is also used by the police when registering complaints lodged by the parents of the parties involved.
No is required to marry, and most heterosexual Hindu marriages in India today are performed by religious rites alone, without a marriage and are never registered with the state.