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Background: Recent chats have directly compared the effects of Internet-based self-help interventions with face-to-face FtF treatment, but groups may also differ regarding other aspects, insomnia from the fact that the former is online and the latter offline. Thus, we examined the effects of a brief three-session psychotherapy for insomnia that was delivered FtF or through synchronous text-based chats. Methods: Seventy-three patients diagnosed with insomnia were randomized to either FtF treatment, a chat-based treatment, or to a waiting list control group WL. Treatment included topics that covered imagination, sleep restriction, sleep hygiene, repetition, and consolidation. Improvements in actigraphic sleep onset latency that had been gained at the post-test time point, disappeared at FU, while subjective improvements remained. At FU, patients in the chat group outperformed FtF patients regarding subjective total sleep time, anxiety, depression, and cognitive pre-sleep arousal.
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